In 1902, King Chulalongkorn attempted to promote the country's silk, silverware, and weaving industries. He hired Dr Kametaro Toyama, from the University of Tokyo, to train Siamese students in Japanese silk and weaving crafts. In 1904, the School of Sericulture was founded at Tambon Thung Saladaeng, Bangkok by Prince Benbadhanabongse, the Director of the Department of Sericulture of the Ministry of Agriculture. The school was renamed the School of Agriculture in 1906.
In 1908, the School of the Ministry of Agriculture was founded at Windsor Palace as the Ministry of Agriculture merged three schools, the School of Surveying (founded in 1882), the School of Irrigation (founded in 1905), and the School of Agriculture. Thailand's first tertiary-level agriculture curriculum began to offer courses in 1909.
In 1935, the Primary School Agriculture Teacher Training School in each part of the country was closed and merged following the agricultural education policy in that time. Luang Ingkhasikasikan, Luang Suwan Vajokkasikij, and Phra Chuangkasetsinlapakan together proposed to maintain the Mae Jo School (today's Mae Jo University) at Chiang Mai Province only and renamed it Secondary-level Agriculture Technical School before it was elevated to the College of Agriculture, under the Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.
The Ministry of Agriculture established the Central Agriculture Station or "Kaset Klang", in Bang Khen District, Bangkok. It caused the College of Agriculture to move to Bang Khen District in 1938 and the government office at Chiang Mai Province became Kasetsart Preparatory School to prepare students to study at the College of Agriculture in Bang Khen.
In 1943, Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram promoted the College of Agriculture and established Kasetsart University as a department of the Ministry of Agriculture. The university consisted of four faculties: agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and cooperatives (today's Faculty of Economics and Faculty of Business Administration).
In 1966, Mom Luang Xujati Kambhu, the Fifth President of Kasetsart University, judged the Bang Khen campus too confined and unable to support the education in agricultural sciences called for by the National Social and Economics Development Plan. The Kamphaeng Saen campus was established on 12 November 1979 as a result.